Tajikistan is located in Central Asia, bordering Russia to the north, Uzbekistan to the south and east, and Afghanistan to the west. The country has a population of about 8 million people and a land area of about 228,000 km2. Tajikistan is traversed by mountain ranges and owes much of its topography to thrust and fold tectonics. The climate is moderately hot and dry with a pronounced summer monsoon. Tajikistan has two historical regions: the Pamir Mountains on the eastern border and the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region in the west. There are significant ethnic divisions within Tajik society, with Uzbeks constituting the largest minority group. Islam is the official religion of Tajikistan.